NOx Emissions (PPM): Oxides of nitrogen (more commonly called NOx) are odorless gases that help form smog, and give smog its characteristic brown color. NO is produced when temperatures in the combustion chambers exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Excessive engine temperatures could be caused by a lean fuel mixture, by retarded timing, by carbon buildup inside the combustion chamber, or by a malfunctioning engine cooling system. The function of the EGR System is to reduce NO. Unhealthy levels of NO emissions result in a vehicle failing its Smog Check. NO is measured in parts per million (PPM).